Tax information sheet 2019/20

 April 2019

Fact sheet no. BDL19 EW Tax information sheet


Scottish income tax

From 6 April 2017 Scottish income tax bands differ from those set in England and Wales. This fact sheet is for taxpayers in England and Wales only. If you are a Scottish tax payer, see the Scottish version of the Tax information sheet.

This fact sheet tells you about the current tax rates and allowances. Use this fact sheet to find out about:

  • personal allowances for income tax;
  • income tax rates and bands;
  • National Insurance contributions for sole traders;
  • National Insurance contributions for directors of limited companies and employees;
  • corporation tax; and
  • value added tax (VAT).

Income tax allowances

​Personal allowances


​Personal allowance (1) ​£11,850 £12,500
​Income limit for personal allowance (2) £​100,000 ​£100,000
​Income limit for married couple's allowance (3) £28,900 ​£29,600
​Married couple's allowance (maximum amount) (4) £​8,695 ​£8,915
​Married couple's allowance (minimum amount) (5) £​3,360 ​£3,450
​Blind person's allowance £​2,390 £2,450​


(1) and (2) Since 2016/17 everyone is entitled to the same personal allowance and income limit, no matter when they were born.

(3) Where income is above £29,600, the allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 above the limit.

(4) and (5) The relief for married couple's allowance is given at 10%.

Income tax rates and bands

2018/19​ 2019/20​
​Basic rate 20% Personal allowance - £34,500​ ​Personal allowance - £37,500
​Higher rate 40% £34,501 - £150,000​ £37,501 - £150,000​
​Additional rate 45% Over £150,000​ Over £150,000​


Welsh Rates of Income Tax (WRIT)

From 6th April 2019, if you live in Wales, you will pay the WRIT. If you are self-employed you will be asked about your country of residence on your self assessment tax return. Welsh tax payers will pay the same amount of tax as people living in England for this tax year, but 10% will go directly to the Welsh Government. See for more information.

  • Your personal allowance goes down by £1 for every £2 that your adjusted net income is above £100,000. This means that your personal allowance is zero if your income is £125,000 or above for 2019/20.
  • From 2017/18 tax relief for finance costs for landlords of residential properties will be restricted to the basic rate only. See HM Revenue and Customs guidance on Changes to tax relief for residential landlords for more information.



National Insurance contributions

2018/19​ 2019/20
​Class 2 £2.95pw​ £3.00pw​
​Class 2 - Small profits threshold £6,025pa​ £6,365pa​
Class 4 - Lower profits limit​ £8,424pa​ £8,632pa​
​           - Upper profits limit £46,350pa​ £50,000pa​
​           - Rate between upper and lower profits limit 9%​ ​9%
​           - Rate above upper profits limit 2%​ 2%​

Example calculation of estimated monthly income tax and National Insurance contributions 2019/20

  • If you are under retirement age and either a sole trader or a partner in a partnership, this example will help you work out the monthly income tax and National Insurance you should pay on your profit from your business.
  • You will then be able to work out your Available drawings from your business. This will help you work out your household budget to show you what you have available to pay your creditors.
  • In this example, the figure worked out on the business budget sheet for Drawings (what your profit is before tax and National Insurance) is £4,250 per month.
  • This example should not be used for income from residential properties.

Estimated monthly income tax

​1. ​Figure from Drawings box (top box on page 4 of Your business and household budget sheet) £4,250​ A​
​2. ​Multiply by 12 to get the annual figure ​£51,000 B​
​3. Tax allowance (refer to personal allowances​) ​£12,500 C​
​4. ​Taxable amount = B - C ​£38,500 D​
​5. ​First £37,500 of D multiplied by 20% ​£7,500 E​
6.​ D - ​£37,500 (if answer is greater than 0) multiplied by 40% ​£400 F​
​7. ​Estimated yearly tax liability = E + F ​£7,900 G​
8.​ Estimated monthly tax liability = G divided by 12​ £658.33​ H​

Use H £658.33 as the Estimated tax figure on Your business and household budget sheet.


Estimated National Insurance contributions


Class 2 National Insurance contributions

Use a flat-rate of £13.00 per month (£3.00 per week) as the National Insurance class 2 figure on Your business and household budget sheet

Class 4 National Insurance contributions

​1. ​Use Figure B from above (if figure is more than the maximum of £50,000 insert £50,000)  ​£50,000 I​
​2. I - £8,632​ £41,368 J​
​3. Rate payable between upper and lower limits = J multiplied by 9% £3,723.12​ K​
​4. Figure B from above minus £50,000 (if answer is less than 0 insert 0)​ £1,000 L​
​5. Rate payable above upper limit = L multiplied by 2%​ ​£20.00 M​
​6. Yearly class 4 contributions = K + M​ £3,743.12​ N​
​7. Monthly class 4 contributions = N ​divided by 12 ​£311.93


Use O £311.93 as the National Insurance class 4 figure on Your business and household budget sheet.

Corporation tax

2018/19​ 2019/20
​Main rate 19%​ 19%​

From 1 April 2015, there is a single corporation tax rate for non-ring fence profits. 

Value added tax (VAT)

2018/19​ 2019/20​
​Standard rate 20%​ 20%​
Reduced rate​ 5%​ ​5%
Zero rate​ 0%​ 0%​
Registration level​ £85,​000 £85,000
​De-registration level £83,000​ £83,000

Making Tax Digital for VAT was introduced on 1 April 2019 for businesses with a taxable turnover above the VAT threshold of £85,000. For more information, go to and search for 'Making Tax Digital for VAT'.

National Insurance contributions class 1

​Directors and employees 2018/19​ 2019/20​
​Lower earnings limit primary class 1 £116pw​ ​£118pw
Upper earnings limit primary class 1​ £892pw​ £962pw​
Primary threshold​ £162pw​ £166pw​
Secondary threshold​ £162pw​ £166pw​


​Rates 2018/19​ ​2019/20
​Class 1 rate between primary threshold and upper earnings limit 12%​ 12%​
Class 1 rate above upper earnings limit​ 2%​ ​2%
Class 1A rate on employer provided benefits​ 13.8%​ 13.8%
​Employers' rates 2018/19​ 2019/20​
Secondary class 1 rate above second threshold​ 13.8%​ 13.8%​

The information shown above for the employer's secondary class 1 rate does not apply to employees aged under 21 or apprentices aged under 25 who are in an approved UK government apprenticeship. See for more information.